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Citing sources is a vital part of research and writing. It allows your readers to examine the depth of your research and explore sources covering similar topics and subjects. Giving credit where credit is due through citing your sources is also one of the keys to adhering to Sacred Heart University's Academic Integrity Policy. Violations of the Academic Integrity Policy can result in failing grades, departmental sanctions, temporary exclusion from the campus, and even dismissal from the university. The following information should help you avoid any citation-based issues, but, if you have any questions about whether or not you need to cite a resource, ask your instructor, a librarian, or writing support personnel at the Jandrisevits Learning Center.
Citation Style Guides
Citation style depends largely on the preferences of your class instructor and the academic discipline under consideration. The following titles are the official style guides for the four most widely used citation systems at Sacred Heart University: Chicago, MLA, AMA, and APA.
To examine more about the differences between styles and for information on citing sources using these systems, see the books in the SHU Library collection below or take a look at AMA, APA, CSE, MLA, and Chicago quick guides, as well as our supplemental guide for audiovisual and digital resources, here.
AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors by Cheryl Iverson (Editor); Stacy Christiansen (Editor); Annette Flanagin (Editor); JAMA and Archives Journals Staff (Editor)For decades indispensable, the AMA Manual of Style continues to provide editorial support to the medical and scientific publishing community. Since the 1998 publication of the 9th edition, however, the world of medical publishing has rapidly modernized, and the intersection of research and publishing has become ever more complex. The 10th edition of the AMA Manual of Style brings this definitive manual into the 21st century with a broadened international perspective. In doing so, the 10th edition has expanded its electronic guidelines, with the understanding that authors now routinely submit articles through online systems and often cite Web-only content. Ethical and legal issues receive increased attention, with detailed guidelines on authorship, conflicts of interest, scientific misconduct, intellectual property, and the protection of individuals' rights in scientific research and publication. The new edition examines research ethics and editorial independence and features new material on indexing and searching as well as medical nomenclature.
The Chicago Manual of Style by University of Chicago Press Editorial StaffIn the seven years since the previous edition debuted, we have seen an extraordinary evolution in the way we create and share knowledge. This seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style has been prepared with an eye toward how we find, create, and cite information that readers are as likely to access from their pockets as from a bookshelf. It offers updated guidelines on electronic workflows and publication formats, tools for PDF annotation and citation management, web accessibility standards, and effective use of metadata, abstracts, and keywords. It recognizes the needs of those who are self-publishing or following open access or Creative Commons publishing models. The citation chapters reflect the ever-expanding universe of electronic sources--including social media posts and comments, private messages, and app content--and also offer updated guidelines on such issues as DOIs, time stamps, and e-book locators.
Call Number: REF Z253 .U69 2017
Publication Date: 2017
MLA Handbook: Eighth Edition by The Modern Language Association of AmericaThe Modern Language Association, the authority on research and writing, takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. Works are published today in a dizzying range of formats. A book, for example, may be read in print, online, or as an e-book--or perhaps listened to in an audio version. On the Web, modes of publication are regularly invented, combined, and modified. Previous editions of the MLA Handbook provided separate instructions for each format, and additional instructions were required for new formats. In this groundbreaking new edition of its best-selling handbook, the MLA recommends instead one universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any type of source. Shorter and redesigned for easy use, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook guides writers through the principles behind evaluating sources for their research. It then shows them how to cite sources in their writing and create useful entries for the works-cited list.
Citation: A (Very) Brief Introduction (from NCSU Libraries)
This helpful video from North Carolina State University Libraries gives students a brief look at what citations are and why they are used in research.
This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States license.
When to Cite Sources
Princeton University's "When to Cite Sources" page from their Academic Integrity guide offers an excellent rundown on when and what types of information writers need to cite.
This playlist of short videos highlights several aspects of citing sources, such as in-text citations, formatting block quotes, and paraphrasing. Helpful information on the research process is also included.
Collecting, organizing, and formatting your references for a research project can be a real pain. Thankfully there are programs that have been created to help you to accomplish all three of these tasks.
The library recommends using Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] as a citation management solution. It is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. Zotero allows users to pull citation information from their library catalog and library databases, as well as from websites and other born-digital content. It can be accessed by clicking the logo below.
For further information on using Zotero, check out the Zotero guide from SHU Library.