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AN 299: Humans and the Ice Age: Citing Sources

A Guide to Support Student Research


Citing sources is a vital part of research and writing. It allows your readers to examine the depth of your research and explore sources covering similar topics and subjects. Giving credit where credit is due through citing your sources is also one of the keys to adhering to Sacred Heart University's Academic Integrity Policy. Violations of the Academic Integrity Policy can result in failing grades, departmental sanctions, temporary exclusion from the campus, and even dismissal from the university. The following information should help you avoid any citation-based issues, but, if you have any questions about whether or not you need to cite a resource, ask your instructor, a librarian, or writing support personnel at the Jandrisevits Learning Center.

Citation Style Guides

Citation style depends largely on the preferences of your class instructor and the academic discipline under consideration. The following titles are the official style guides for the four most widely used citation systems at Sacred Heart University: Chicago, MLA, AMA, and APA.

To examine more about the differences between styles and for information on citing sources using these systems, see the books in the SHU Library collection below or take a look at AMA, APA,  CSE, MLA, and Chicago quick guides, as well as our supplemental guide for audiovisual and digital resources, here.

What are Citations and When do I Cite?

NCSU SealCitation: A (Very) Brief Introduction (from NCSU Libraries)

This helpful video from North Carolina State University Libraries gives students a brief look at what citations are and why they are used in research.

This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States license.

Princeton U SealWhen to Cite Sources

Princeton University's "When to Cite Sources" page from their Academic Integrity guide offers an excellent rundown on when and what types of information writers need to cite.


This playlist of short videos highlights several aspects of citing sources, such as in-text citations, formatting block quotes, and paraphrasing. Helpful information on the research process is also included.

Citation Management

Collecting, organizing, and formatting your references for a research project can be a real pain. Thankfully there are programs that have been created to help you to accomplish all three of these tasks.

The library recommends using Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] as a citation management solution. It is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. Zotero allows users to pull citation information from their library catalog and library databases, as well as from websites and other born-digital content. It can be accessed by clicking the logo below.

Zotero logo

For further information on using Zotero, check out the Zotero guide from SHU Library.